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The History of Peru

Take a trip through the history of Peru, from ancient pre-Inca civilizations to the Inca Empire itself. Learn about the Spanish Conquest and the fall of the Incas, the fight for Peruvian Independence and the emergence of modern Peru.

Peruvian Independence Day
In the early 1800s, liberators such as José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar fought to give South American nations independence from Spain. Peru gained its independence on July 28, 1821.

The Flag of Peru
The flag of Peru -- as used today -- was first introduced in 1825 by Simón Bolívar.

Who Discovered Machu Picchu?
Did Hiram Bingham discover Machu Picchu, or did others find the Inca citadel before him?

Biography of Saint Rose of Lima
Saint Rose of Lima, born in Lima in 1586, is one of the most famous and venerated figures from Peruvian history.

Francisco Pizarro: A Timeline
A timeline of the life of Francisco Pizarro, Spanish conquistador and conqueror of Peru.

The Pyramids of Caral in Peru
The settlement of Caral on the coast of Peru is the most ancient city so far discovered in the Americas.

The Apu Mountain Spirits
Mountains were sacred places for the Incas. The peaks were home to powerful apu mountain spirits, spirits that are still venerated in the Andean highlands today.

Guide to the Inca Empire
Learn more about the Inca Empire with this detailed guide by K. Kris Hirst, About.com's archaeology guide.

Huáscar and Atahualpa: An Inca Civil War
The Inca civil war proved to be a key factor in the rapid fall of the Inca Empire. The Spanish conquistadors were able to exploit the rivalry between Huáscar and Atahualpa, a conflict that severely weakened the Incas.

Timeline of the Ancient Andes
Take a trip from the Preceramic Period to the Late Horizon with this series of articles detailing the timeline of the ancient Andes.

Moche Culture Timeline and Description
The Moche civilization inhabited Peru’s coastal strip between 100 and 800 AD. Find out more about the creators of sites such as Sipán, Huaca del Sol and Huaca de la Luna.

The Chimú State
The Chimú civilization occupied the coastal strip north of Lima from about 850 AD until their fall at the hands of the Incas in the 1400s. Its capital was the vast Chan Chan complex near modern-day Trujillo.

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